🛡️Guardians of the Digital Galaxy

🤠Howdy! Howdy! 

We have started a new feature: a crossword puzzle with the vocabulary in the newsletter

While we are vacationing or just disconnecting, our brains continue solving issues we need to address. As September gets closer, we start revving up for our post-vacation meetings, sometimes offering new perspectives, brainstorming or simply describing the situation as is. To prepare for this, I have put together this edition focused on the interconnected world of cause, effect, reason, and purpose – elements that shape not only our actions but also cybersecurity. Next week we will cover which verb tense we need to use to explain how we got here.

The repercussions of inadequate cybersecurity can be severe. As a consequence, we face outcomes like financial loss and reputational damage, highlighting the upshot. Our aim is to present insights into these factors’ interplay, which has generated a new era of digital challenges. Causes, effects, purpose, reasons, results…..

The words in RED are the connectors and the words in BLACK bold font are vocabularies. The story has three levels, advanced, upper intermediate, and lower intermediate. Like I always tell you in class, don’t stress: if you learn one or two things that’s awesome.

Thanks again, for your support and comments. Let me know if you would like something in particular.


Margaret Bergeron

📕 Advanced

In a dimly lit conference room, Mark, the company’s seasoned cybersecurity expert, stood before a group of attentive colleagues. With a solemn expression, he began to explain the necessary changes in the company’s computer security protocols. The urgency in his voice was matched by the gravity of the situation.

“Good morning, everyone,” Mark began, his tone measured but firm. “I’m here to discuss the critical changes we need to make in our computer security protocols. The recent breach of our systems has highlighted the cause for concern: our current measures are no longer sufficient.”

He continued, “Because of the evolving nature of cyber threats and the increasing sophistication of hackers, we can no longer rely on our existing security infrastructure. As technology advances, so do the methods used to breach our defenses. Owing to this rapidly changing landscape, we must adapt to secure our sensitive data and maintain our clients’ trust.”

Mark elaborated, “The breach was sparked off by a vulnerability that wasn’t properly patched, giving rise to unauthorized access. This oversight was a consequence of insufficient monitoring and a lack of up-to-date security patches. As a result, confidential information was compromised.”

“As cybersecurity professionals, our purpose is to safeguard our company and clients from malicious intent,” Mark continued, his gaze unwavering. “With the aim of preventing future breaches, we must implement stricter access controls and routine audits. Motivated by the need to protect our assets and uphold our reputation, we need to shift our focus from reactive measures to proactive strategies.”

He emphasized, “The upshot of these changes will be a more resilient defense against cyber threats. By strengthening our security protocols, we will be better equipped to respond to any future attempts. This, in turn, will ensure the continuity of our operations and the trust of our stakeholders.

Mark concluded,Consequently, our actions now will determine the outcome of our future security posture. The result of our collective efforts will define the security landscape of our company.”

As Mark’s presentation came to an end, the room was filled with a renewed sense of purpose. The cause of the breach had been identified, and the necessary changes were clear. Inspired by the motive to protect their company’s integrity, the team left the room ready to implement the required adjustments, driven by the knowledge that their actions would pave the way for a more secure future.

📘 Upper-Intermediate

In a dim room, Mark, a computer security expert, talked to his work friends. He said they needed to make important changes to the way they keep computers safe. He looked very serious.

“Hello, everyone,” Mark said. “I’m here to talk about making computers safe. Bad things happened recently, so we need to do better.”

Mark explained, “Hackers are getting smarter, and our old way of keeping computers safe isn’t enough. We have to do more to protect our information and the trust of the people who use our services.”

He said, “A problem caused a breach, which let bad people get in. It happened because we didn’t fix something important. This made our information not safe anymore.”

Mark told them, “We’re here to stop bad things from happening. To do this, we’ll make sure only the right people can get in and we’ll check often to catch problems. We’re doing this so our stuff stays safe, and people can still trust us.”

“By making these changes, our computers will be better at stopping bad things. This means we can keep working without interruptions and our users will be happy,” Mark added.

Mark finished, saying, “What we do now decides how safe we’ll be in the future. Let’s all take this seriously and work together to keep everything secure.”

After Mark spoke, everyone felt determined. They knew why things went wrong and what they had to do. They were ready to work and make things safer, so the company would stay strong and trustworthy.

📙 Lower intermediate

In a dim room, Mark, a computer safety expert, spoke to his work friends. He said, “We must improve computer safety due to recent issues.”

Mark explained, “Clever bad people are breaking in. Our old methods aren’t enough. We must do more to protect information and user trust.”

He added, “A problem caused a breach; we must fix it to ensure safety.”

Mark stated, “We’re here to prevent problems. We’ll limit access and check for issues. This way, our data stays safe and trust remains.”

“Changes make computers better at stopping problems. This keeps us working and users happy,” Mark noted.

Mark concluded, “Our actions now shape our future safety. Let’s work together to stay secure.”

After Mark spoke, everyone felt prepared. They understood the issues and the solutions. Ready to enhance safety, they aimed to ensure the company’s strength and user trust.


🆕 NEW FEATURE: CROSSWORD PUZZLE https://wordwall.net/resource/59463824

  1. Revving up: The act of increasing the speed of an engine, usually by pressing the accelerator pedal, to make it run faster and produce more power.
  2. Dimly: In a faint or feeble manner, often referring to a low level of light, visibility, or clarity.
  3. Seasoned: Experienced, skilled, or knowledgeable due to having a lot of practical exposure and time in a particular field or activity.
  4. Measured tone: Refers to a manner of speaking or writing that is deliberate, controlled, and well-calibrated.
  5. Gravity: Describes something as being serious, solemn, or significant in nature.
  6. Breach of: The violation or breaking of a rule, law, agreement, standard, or established boundary.
  7. Hackers: Skilled individuals who use their technical expertise to gain unauthorized access to computer systems, networks, or data, often for illicit purposes.
  8. Landscape: The visible features and characteristics of an area of land, including both natural elements like terrain, vegetation, and bodies of water, as well as man-made structures.
  9. Lack of: The absence or deficiency of something that is expected, required, or desired.
  10. Safeguard: To protect, defend, or ensure the safety, security, and well-being of someone or something against potential harm, danger, or risk.
  11. Malicious: Intending to cause harm, damage, or distress; characterized by ill intent or hostility.
  12. Unwavering: Firm, steadfast, and not changing; resolute and consistent, often in beliefs, attitudes, or actions.
  13. Audits: Formal examinations, assessments, or evaluations of processes, systems, financial records, or other activities to verify accuracy, compliance, and effectiveness.
  14. Assets: Valuable resources, possessions, or properties owned by an individual, organization, or entity, often with monetary value.
  15. Uphold: To maintain, support, or defend principles, values, or standards, especially in the face of challenges or opposition.
  16. Proactive: Taking initiative and anticipating potential issues or opportunities, often resulting in actions to prevent problems or capitalize on advantages.
  17. Resilient: Capable of withstanding and recovering from adversity, challenges, or setbacks; showing the ability to bounce back and adapt.
  18. Stakeholders: Individuals, groups, or entities that have an interest, involvement, or influence in a particular project, organization, or decision due to their potential impact or benefit.
  19. Renewed: Restored, revitalized, or made fresh again, often after a period of decline, inactivity, or stagnation.
  20. Pave the way: To create favorable conditions or remove obstacles that enable or facilitate the occurrence or success of something.

🤔 Expressing Cause, effect, reason, purpose

This week, vocabulary and grammar are in the same section. These words and phrases can be used to express cause, effect, result, purpose, and reason in different sentences. Here’s how they can be used in various contexts:

Cause or Reason for Something:

  • Because: She missed the train because she overslept.
  • Since: Since it was raining, the outdoor event was canceled.
  • As: As he was tired, he decided to skip the party.
  • Owing to: Owing to the heavy traffic, they arrived late.
  • Due to: The delay was due to a technical issue.
  • Caused by: The accident was caused by a driver running a red light.
  • Sparked (off): The argument sparked (off) a heated debate.
  • Give rise to: His comments gave rise to a lot of controversies.
  • Provoked: Her rude behavior provoked a negative response.
  • Generated: The solar panels generate enough electricity to power the entire house.
  • Brought about: Their teamwork brought about a successful project.
  • Stems from: His anxiety stems from his fear of public speaking.
  • Arose from: The misunderstanding arose from miscommunication.

Reason and Purpose:

  • Reason for: He explained the reason for his absence.
  • Motives: Her motives for volunteering were to help the community.
  • Prompt: The urgent situation prompted quick action.
  • With the aim of: He studied hard with the aim of getting good grades.
  • On the grounds that: She refused to attend the meeting on the grounds that it was irrelevant.
  • The purpose of: The purpose of the workshop was to improve communication skills.


  • As a result: She worked hard, and as a result, she received a promotion.
  • As a consequence: He didn’t study, and as a consequence, he failed the test.
  • Consequently: The team missed the deadline; consequently, the project was delayed.
  • The result/consequence: Their efforts resulted in a successful product launch.
  • To result in: Skipping meals can result in health problems.
  • Outcome: The outcome of the negotiation was a mutually beneficial agreement.
  • The upshot: The upshot of their collaboration was a stunning art exhibition.
  • Ensued: He didn’t follow the instructions, and problems ensued.

Let’s explore these ideas

These discussion questions can provide a framework for exploring various topics while analyzing the relationships between causes, effects, reasons, and results. Use the vocabulary in the section above.

1. Technology and Social Isolation:

  • Cause: How has the widespread use of smartphones contributed to increased social isolation?
  • Effect: What are the potential consequences of social isolation on mental health and well-being?
  • Reason: What technological features or behaviors have led to reduced face-to-face interactions among individuals?
  • Result: How might society change if social isolation continues to rise due to technological factors?

2. Climate Change and Global Migration:

  • Cause: How does climate change impact environmental conditions, such as rising sea levels or extreme weather events, leading to population displacement?
  • Effect: What are the social, economic, and political effects of large-scale migrations caused by climate-related factors?
  • Reason: How do resource scarcity and environmental degradation drive people to leave their homes and seek new places to live?
  • Result: What might be the long-term consequences for both the regions experiencing mass migration and the places where migrants settle?

🎧 Ear Candy

Cybercrime netted a whopping $450 billion in profits last year, with 2 billion records lost or stolen worldwide. Security expert Caleb Barlow calls out the insufficiency of our current strategies to protect our data. His solution? We need to respond to cybercrime with the same collective effort as we apply to a healthcare crisis, sharing timely information on who is infected and how the disease is spreading. If we’re not sharing, he says, then we’re part of the problem.
Hacking is about more than mischief-making or political subversion. As Catherine Bracy describes in this spirited talk, it can be just as much a force for good as it is for evil. She spins through some inspiring civically-minded projects in Honolulu, Oakland, and Mexico City — and makes a compelling case that we all have what it takes to get involved.

👋🏼 Don’t be a stranger!

Thank you for joining us on this journey through the world of cybersecurity! Stay vigilant against threats, and keep exploring the connections that empower us to safeguard our digital realms effectively.

🎉Shout out

To Antonio in Italy for the inspiration and Yolanda in Argentina for the trial run.

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